On June 2, 2016, the CFPB published its proposed rule (the “Proposed Rule”) addressing payday loans, vehicle title loans, and certain other installment loans (collectively “covered loans”). This alert summarizes the Proposed Rule and compares the Proposed Rule to the CFPB’s March 26, 2015 outline released pursuant to the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Those wishing to comment on the Proposed Rule must do so by September 14, 2016.
Summary of the Proposed Rule
The Proposed Rule is issued pursuant to the CFPB’s authority under section 1031 of the Dodd-Frank Act to identify and prevent unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices. It defines two types of covered loans: (1) “short-term” loans that have terms of 45 days or less; and (2) “longer-term” loans with terms of more than 45 days that have a “total cost of credit” exceeding 36% and either a “leveraged payment mechanism” or a security interest in the consumer’s vehicle. A “leveraged payment mechanism” includes a right for the lender to initiate transfers from the consumer’s account and certain other payment mechanisms. The Proposed Rule would exclude (i) credit extended for the sole and express purpose of financing a consumer’s initial purchase of a good when the credit is secured by the property being purchased; (ii) credit secured by any real property or by personal property used or expected to be used as a dwelling; (iii) credit cards; (iv) student loans; (v) non-recourse pawn loans; and (vi) overdraft services and lines of credit.
The Proposed Rule would make it an abusive and unfair practice for a lender to make a covered short-term or longer-term loan without determining upfront that the consumer will have the ability to repay the loan (the “full-payment test”). For both types of covered loans, the Proposed Rule would require a lender to determine whether the consumer can afford the full amount of each payment of a covered loan when due and still meet basic living expenses and major financial obligations. As a practical matter, the full-payment test imposes restrictions on rollovers, loan sequences, and refinancing by preventing the offering of short-term loans fewer than 30 days after payoff without a showing that the borrower’s financial situation is materially improved (and capping successive short-term loans at 3 before requiring a 30-day cooling off period), and preventing the refinancing of longer-term loans without a showing that payments would be smaller or would lower the total cost of credit. The Proposed Rule also would provide conditional exemptions for certain covered loans meeting specified criteria, as discussed further below. These conditional exemptions essentially provide alternative compliance options to the Proposed Rule’s full-payment test. Additionally, the Proposed Rule would require lenders to use and furnish information to registered information systems established to track covered loans.